Streaming TV to look like cable you just cancelled

How streaming TV is repeating the evolution of cable TV

Wired lists seven free streaming services with advertising that you will want to have as backups to Netflix and Amazon Prime Video accounts: IMDbTV, the Roku Channel, Kanopy, Tubi, Pluto TV, Crackle, and Vudu.

dis-rup-shun: If you are old enough to remember when cable TV was a new thing, you remember that for a reasonable monthly fee, your three-channel rabbit-ear antenna TV could become clear and sharp. Then came more channels. Then came movie channels such as HBO. Then came original content, like the Sopranos. Now that 76% of us U.S. households have Netlix and 51% have Amazon prime, we see the add on of many more streaming ‘channels’ or services. The next step will be bundling of many services into streaming packages, enabling one to access many services through a single sign-on and credit card authorization. With the pay TV providers such as AT&T driving those bundles, these new services will come from the same providers who used to offer cable TV packages. Once again we will be buying packages from big TV providers — but this time based on when we want to watch.

How apps get to the Apple App Store

Apple’s process for reviewing and approving or rejecting apps for publication on the App Store includes over 300 human reviewers who speak 81 languages, at two offices in Sunnyvale, CA with a goal to complete review of a submission within 24 to 48 hours. Each reviewer must review between 50 to 100 apps per day to ensure they run properly, are not illegal, and do not contain prohibited content. CNBC

dis-rup-shun: Apple fan or not, one must credit the company on the high quality of available apps. Apple takes up to 30% of revenues generated from sales on the app store, so the company has an incentive to provide a quick turn-around and ensure a good app experience. TechCrunch states that 2/3rds of an estimated $75 billion (2018) in app revenue is generated by Apple’s app store. The revenue gap between Apple and the Google Play Store increased last year, with Apple advancing its lead. Research firm Sensor Tower states that rising revenue disparity is driven by increasing number of subscriptions to monthly services such as Netflix, and Tinder.

Drones for humanity

Eco-entrepreneurs are developing a working drone that will biodegrade in weeks after completing its mission. Otherlab of San Francisco has built a gliding drone made now from cardboard but later to be made of a mushroom-based mycelium material. The Apsara drone is funded by DARPA who required a design that not only could carry cargo to a designated spot, but that would also decompose quickly. Wired

dis-rup-shun: Given last week’s downing by Iran of a $220 million U.S. surveillance drone, it is easy to consider drones as weapons, but this brilliant drone design will enable humanitarian aid of emergency food supplies and medicines in an effective and responsible way — likely helping to maintain populations that are caught in the cross hairs of military actions.

Kano, the Erector Set of today, will boost STEM interest

Microsoft has invested in UK youth computer maker Kano which will now run Windows 10. The $300 computer kit comes with creativity and development software which encourages kids to design 3D objects, build their own programs, computer art, and collaborate with other builders through a youth version of Teams collaboration software. TechCrunch

dis-rup-shun: Today’s youth have most often clamored for Apple to be their first device. By introducing a computer designed to engage youth prior to the age of ownership of first computer, Microsoft has seized on an opportunity to develop renewed interest from tomorrow’s newest scientists. Hopefully the move will address the shortage of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) students by developing an early interest in computer science. 

How Amazon will wreck the pharmacy industry

How Amazon will wreck the pharmacy business

Amazon quietly entered the pharmacy business in 2017 and introduced PillPack, a direct to home prescription drug business that packages pills by daily dosage, with dates and times to take the medicine printed on the package. The retail pharmacy heavyweights currently play middle man by negotiating discounts from drug makers for large health insurers, creating special pricing for insurance networks. By selling directly to insurance companies, Amazon will cut out the retail pharmacy giants. CNBC

dis-rup-shun: Amazon’s disruptive move will benefit the consumer with lower drug prices and, possibly, lower health insurance premiums, but will destabilize the retail pharmacy industry by forcing it to rely more heavily on the sale of non-drug products, a battle it is already fighting against Amazon.com and Prime. One answer is for retail pharmacies to move more aggressively into care clinics, a trend well underway, putting further pressure on doctor and hospital chains to become more consumer-friendly as they are forced to compete with retail pharmacies for walk-in healthcare.

Direct share offerings will put a squeeze on bankers

Collaboration tool vendor Slack went public this week without assistance from investment banks, gaining 50% value in its first day. The capital raise puts valuation of the company at $23.1 billion. Compare this to Uber’s IPO last month which, by absolute dollar valuation, was the worst performing IPO in history. Both Lyft and Uber have recovered somewhat from a bad initial offering. Gizmodo

dis-rup-shun: Two large IPOs, Slack and Spotify in 2018, were direct (limited banker involvement) offerings. Both companies have enjoyed strong value growth since IPO. Uber and Lyft were heavily hyped by investment banks and crashed after offering. Before we conclude that bankers are bad, it is important to note that Uber and Lyft’s business models do not show profitability in the near term, and seem to be in multiple businesses. On the other hand, Slack is facing stiff competition from tech giants. If we assume that the market is sophisticated enough to understand the competitive landscape ahead of the IPO, then one conclusion is that bankers may be over-promoting offerings and that a more informed market later corrects. Expect direct offerings to become more commonplace, eventually forcing a correction in the fees charged by banking firms.

Zuckerberg outranks Tim Cook

Glassdoor’s anonymous survey of former employees’ views on their CEO has a number of tech CEOs ranking in the top 10. Ranking in the lower half of the 100 ranked are Facebook’s Zuckerberg at 59 (#1 is the best) and Apple’s Tim Cook at 69th place. ZDNet

dis-rup-shun: Interesting to see Cook at the bottom of the heap, especially after a brutal year for Facebook’s public image. Does the secrecy inherent in Apple’s culture create distrust inside the family? Despite Facebook’s missteps, Zuckerberg has been quite penitent in public, perhaps gaining employee’s respect. It is rare for a company as successful as Apple to not become an arrogant empire, and perhaps more transparency would engender more employee admiration.

Netflix will eventually include advertisements, says industry

Netflix, with its 150 million subscribers, faces significant costs from developing original content. Industry insiders predict that Netflix will break its vow of no advertisements as production costs increase and the value of its audience reach soars. CNBC

dis-rup-shun: Netflix continues to pursue a unique strategy — using debt to finance a very large catalog of original content that it can monetize over coming years. As other streaming services are launched from companies including Disney and AT&T’s WarnerMedia, Netflix subscriber growth will be challenged. The barriers to entry for streaming services have become original content — a very expensive barrier. As John Penney, CSO of 29th Century Fox has been telling the industry for years, there is simply not enough non-movie theater revenue in the TV distribution chain to support the costs of original content. The company’s stock price, however, continues to show confidence in the company’s ‘think different’ strategy.

Should Facebook’s currency be blocked?

The implications of a non-government financial currency

On Tuesday Facebook and the Libra consortium officially announced their new financial currency. Already, government regulators are seeking to press pause on the project until some big questions can be answered. U.S. Representative Patrick McHenry , the top Republican on the House Financial Services committee, has asked for an inquiry, and European regulators have immediately expressed concern. Wired

dis-rup-shun: Policy makers’ concerns about a privately controlled currency are many, including how to handle fraud, how to prevent money laundering, how to ensure stability of existing financial systems, and how to maintain the ability to influence monetary policy when buyers and sellers could move to another system if it was more favorable. We can liken this privatization effort to creating a private version of the TSA in other parts of the airport, creating alternative mail carriers (think UPS and FedEx), building alternative power grids on new poles next to existing, or creating private armies that will be deployed when corporate interests dictate. Sometimes a private currency would be favorable, and other times disastrous, but what is certain is that it would greatly undermine governments’ abilities to manipulate currency and the economy through fiscal policy. The irony is that before Facebook got involved, cryptocurrencies have been operated under fairly shady circumstances and now that a well organized entity is entering the fray, governments are ready to take action.

U.S. gaming market larger than China’s

Since 2015, China’s gaming market has been the largest. Given a 9 month ban by China’s government on approving any new games, the $37 billion U.S. market will again exceed China’s in total value. ZDNet

dis-rup-shun: China seeks to change its citizenry’s high rate of addiction to gaming with the temporary ban. Chinese leaders, however, are failing to see the high correlation between video gaming and technical fluency among youth. China is focused on becoming the global leader in technology and therefore should encourage youth to immerse themselves in Internet and console gaming, where technical creativity may blossom.

Smart plugs are easy, cheap and powerful

To experience the power and potential of a smart home, one can easily start with a voice assistant and their choice of an inexpensive smart plug – a device controlled through an app or voice assistant which can turn off appliances based on rules set by the user.  CNET offers a guide to smart plugs and their apps.

dis-rup-shun: Smart plugs are a powerful way to experience the convenience, extra sense of security, and energy savings of home automation. Having lights turn on and off when you are away from home, or turning off an always-on cable box in the wee hours can make a difference on the power bill. Most all appliances, in their next generation, will offer built in control features, but in the interim, smart plugs are highly effective.

IOT devices will generate 79 trillion gigabytes of data in 2025

IOT devices include smart home, personal devices, industrial and medical devices

The universe of connected devices — both consumer, industrial and medical will generate 79.4 zettabytes of data by 2025. From now until 2025, data growth will be 28.7% annually (CAGR), and growth of video surveillance data, now that everyone will have multiple cameras, is expected to be 60% annually. ZDNet

dis-rup-shun: First of all, what is a zettabyte of data? It is 1 trillion gigabytes, if that helps. It is a lot of data and will continue to grow rapidly as that data must be replicated, manipulated and translated to have meaning to both users as well as manufacturers of things and advertisers. What are the implications? Invest in storage and data analytics tools, storage, and services, such as cloud services, as these industries have a bullet proof future.

‘Normal’ looking eyeglasses that display data to the wearer

Focals by North are stylish prescription glasses that feature a heads up display on the inside so that you can see messages, appointments and streaming data without anyone knowing. The glasses are controlled by a joystick that looks like a ring on your finger. TechCrunch

dis-rup-shun: As soon as you deliver a rousing presentation in front of an audience without ever looking at notes or slides, you will be sold on Focals. Receiving directions while driving without looking at your phone or dashboard will be safer and easier. Imagine working a crowd and calling people by name, thanks to the facial recognition computing performed by your 5G connected eyeglasses.

Stop gaming and use your iPad to learn to play piano

Lumi is a new miniature keyboard device that uses lights and colors in conjunction with an iPad to teach people to play the piano (or the digital keyboard). For $249, one receives an app and a keyboard. TechCrunch

dis-rup-shun: Music lessons are less prevalent for today’s youth than in prior, despite higher incomes and more technology. Making instruments that are extensions of personal technologies will further engage the attention deficit generation and will keep in circulation traditional instruments, or the current versions thereof. Using technology to increase the number of people who perform music is an under pursued opportunity.

Facebook enters the currency business

Facebook launches digital currency

Facebook and 27 other companies — many that are familiar brands in the finance, telecommunications and venture capital markets — are launching a digital currency called Libra. Unlike several popular currencies such as Bitcoin, Libra will be backed by a reserve of assets, will not be decentralized, and cannot be mined. Facebook assures the public that it will not use personal identification of Libra holders for advertising. Gizmodo

dis-rup-shun: Facebook is already one of the largest countries in the world by population, so having its own currency is a natural evolution. The company is a long way from repairing its reputation for respecting privacy, making some suspicious about its monetary instrument. Crypto-currencies, however, have often been perceived as shady and a bit mysterious. Facebook, being a familiar brand despite recent events, is seen as far more regulated and will likely be seen as a safe dealer in new forms of currency, especially given the alliance it has formed with recognized brands.

U.S. approach to 5G will exclude rural coverage

5G is the future of telecommunications and the Internet of Things. The U.S. is fighting for leadership of the 5G build out as it will have implications for the country’s economy, defense and education. The U.S., however, has allocated only high band spectrum for 5G, whereas other countries are reserving mid-band spectrum for their future infrastructure. High band spectrum is more difficult and expensive to transmit. Wired

dis-rup-shun: Providing communications infrastructure for rural or sparsely populated areas has always been a money loser, requiring regulation and subsidies to offset costs. By building 5G on less efficient bandwidth, the U.S. costs for serving all of its population will be on average, higher, likely creating a greater divide between urban and rural populations. Space-based broadband, from networks of low orbit satellites being launched as we speak, could be a means for serving rural areas, but may also be a high cost solution.

Comcast adds gaze control to its TV platform

The ability to control a device by moving one’s eyes is gaze control — a new form of gesture control which serves people who are not able to use a remote control or speak to a smart speaker. Gaze control is now offered in Comcast’s Xfinity X1 remote control software. TechCrunch

dis-rup-shun: Gaze control joins gesture control (moving hands) and voice control to make computing highly accessible to everyone, opening up new job possibilities for people with disabilities but also changing the way we interact with devices in our lives. If our hands are full, the room is noisy, or we wish to interact with devices without others noticing, we will choose alternative ways of device interaction. Expect many control and entertainment devices to offer multiple interfaces for interaction.

Palm offers unlocked tiny smartphone

Whatever happened to Palm? The company now offers a tiny-sized Android smartphone with fewer functions and shorter battery life for $350. The Verge

dis-rup-shun: With smartphone penetration nearly 80% in the U.S. and nearly 50% worldwide, the maturing markets are ripe for niche products. Going for a bike ride? Take your tiny phone. Going to the beach in just your bikini? A job for the tiny phone.  A black tie affair? That’s a job for a smartphone by Rolex or Gucci or… you get the picture.

Is your privacy worth paying for?

Privacy browsers catching a wave

The public is increasingly weary of sharing personal information with the tech giants. Privacy browsers generally don’t allow cookies and provide information on what data is being requested of the user. Wired suggests six privacy browsers or plug-ins to your existing desktop browser that maintain your anonymity, to varying degrees: DuckDuckGo, Ghostery, TOR Browser, Brave, Firefox, Safari.

dis-rup-shun: Thanks to Russia and to Facebook, consumer awareness of personal information sharing is at an all time high. Apple is using privacy as a differentiator, seeking to further engender audiences and shame Google and Facebook for their aggressive harvesting of personal information. The campaign appears to be working. If our society moves to reduce the amount of data we allow tech giants to collect, will we be happy when free services become limited or require payment since maintaining our privacy renders advertising to be less effective?

 

Willo is going to change the way you clean your mouth

Startup Willo has raised $7.5 million from Kleiner Perkins to revolutionize the way you clean your mouth, claiming that the brush is an inferior solution that only cleans 46% of dental plaque. Details are not available, but the picture offered shows a different approach to dental hygiene. TechCrunch

dis-rup-shun: It is likely that this toothbrush replacement will collect data on our brushing habits and offer weekly emails to rate our dental care performance, because that is what every connected device seems to do, despite the fact that most of us aren’t that interested. What will be helpful, however, is to displace the annoying task of spending an hour with a dental hygienist twice a year. That value proposition will be well received.

 

Samsung Fold foldable phone ship dates undetermined

TechCrunch reports that AT&T and BestBuy have cancelled early orders of Samsung’s huge, foldable, $2000 phone that was originally scheduled for release on April 26th.

dis-rup-shun: The foldable phone will be a big hit among those that are willing to pay $2000 to have something no on else has. Having a device the size of a small tablet that will fit in a pocket will be great for travel, and if Samsung is able to add its latest Galaxy photo technology, it will be an amazing way to share digital photography.

 

Highlights from E3 gaming conference

E3 is the biggest gaming industry conference in existence, and 2019’s event just ended. Here are some highlights:

Microsoft’s next Xbox console will launch for holiday 2020 and will feature 8K games and 120 frames per second. It will be backwards compatible with prior generations, if anyone really wanted to play yesterday’s games.

Steaming services are coming. Physical disks are going the way of the Bluray movie disk…unwanted. A large number of streaming services are vying to do for gaming what Netflix did for movie watchers.

dis-rup-shun: The big three console makers have had an effective lock on the gaming space, but that’s about to change when premium content can be streamed to any connected device. Tether a Bluetooth game controller that is not limited to a console architecture to your iPad, smartphone, PC or smart TV, and high performance gaming breaks its traditional bounds. The Verge

 

Over 25% of every day is spent viewing a screen

Daily screen time up to 6.3 hours

Mary Meeker’s annual report on tech trends provides some statistics on screen usage. Americans consumer a whopping 6.3 hours of digital media per day, up 7% from the prior year. Last year was the first that Americans spent more time on mobile devices than on TVs. While watching TV, 88% of Americans simultaneously used a mobile device. 41% of those viewers were using the mobile device to discuss the content with friends and family while 71% were looking up information related to what they were watching. Quartz

dis-rup-shun: Conventional television content continues to be less important and watching on-demand or live content on a mobile device has become a priority. While TV advertising revenues are down as a result, the importance of word-of-mouth (word-of-keyboard, actually) is increasing the value of the content. Content that evokes discussion on social media has a longer shelf life as friends and family, armed with recommendations and familiarity, are more likely to select the discussed content from a dizzying array of choices. The task for producers, then, is to create content that creates a social media response.

Verizon Smart Locator helps you find anything

The Smart Locator is a tiny device used for finding anything you lose frequently. Using Bluetooth, GPS, Wi-Fi and LTE, the $100 per year device will locate anything as long as it is within an LTE cell and the 5 day battery is still active. The Verge

dis-rup-shun: The Smart Locator is the essence of Internet of things, as it puts most anything on the Internet. For $100 per year, keeping up with something you value, like a pet, a purse, or a small child, this is a bargain. Most things, perhaps with the exception of small children, will have their own wireless radios in them in a year or two, but until then, the Smart Locator is a good option.

Smart Displays versus Tablets: which is better in the kitchen?

The new crop of smart displays from Google Nest, Lenovo, Amazon and JBL are optimized for the hands free and voice use in places like the kitchen, where ease of use and assistance with cooking and home controls is the objective. These devices run a version of Android called Android Things. Tablets, on the other hand, offer far more customizations, like running Netflix in the kitchen, while still responding to voice controls. These devices run a version of Android’s mobile OS. The difference in experience is significant and both offer trade-offs. CNET

dis-rup-shun: The question is, do our homes need a specialized screen, optimized for different rooms, like the kitchen, the shower, the bedside, or if a tablet located anywhere will do. Separate devices will be displaced by screens built into refrigerators, stoves, washing machines and wall switches, but at the rate of technological evolution, a 10-year-old smart refrigerator will become a dinosaur far more quickly than a dumb refrigerator. Expect built in screens in most new appliances to be as ubiquitous as their control knobs are today, while counter top screens will control and report on all of those smart appliances.

LongFi is here: 200 times stronger than Wi-Fi

A new wireless standard is launched

With 200 times the range of Wi-Fi, a new wireless standard, LongFi has been launched in Austin, Texas, by a startup company, Helium. Six years in development, the network costs 1/1000th of a comparable cellular network and has arrived just in time for the Internet of Things rush. The network requires only 150 to 200 modems, costing about $500 each, to cover an entire city. TechCrunch

dis-rup-shun: The plunging costs of network connectivity, driven lower by more capacity thanks to the upcoming availability of 5G (really fast cellular networks) and upstarts such as LongFi, remove many barriers to connected everything. Nestle is said to deploy LongFi to determine when its water cooler bottles need to be replaced, suggesting that most devices, containers and appliances in the home will soon be connected. Packaging, such as cereal boxes, dog food and laundry detergent will be able to re-order themselves using low-cost, low bandwidth networks, favoring subscription delivery models similar to Amazon Prime, or Nestle’s monthly water delivery service.

 

Google’s Pixel 4 smartphone rumored to include gesture control

Google’s next smartphone, the Pixel 4  was partially revealed on Wednesday. It is expected to include a sonar-like chip that reads hand gestures as inputs. The technology is named Soli. Finger gestures will mimic turning of a button, and hand gestures will enable skipping to the next song track or pausing. Ars Technica

dis-rup-shun: Voice control, facial recognition and gesture control open the world of technology to many people with impairments, disabilities and certain limitations. They also create many new uses cases for technology, such as using gesture and voice to control not only your car’s entertainment system, but transmission, seat controls and entry access. Ambient computing, defined as always-on computers surrounding you everywhere you go, is only a few years from reality.

 

Microsoft seeking to eliminate passwords

Windows 10 May edition is using phone numbers to transition to a password-less experience. Microsoft is implementing two factor authentication — using phone numbers, fingerprints and facial recognition to eliminate passwords as we know them. ZDNet

dis-rup-shun: Identify fraud costs an average of $263 per person. Passwords are archaic, frequently forgotten, often misused and frequently stolen. Attaching access credentials to unique attributes such as fingerprints or facial images, with redundancy, that can occur without using a keyboard, increases both security and accessibility. Expect passwords as we know them to be nearly non-existent in 3 to 5 years.

Consumers demanding technology to change healthcare

Mary Meeker says digitization of care is well underway

Now famous tech trend investor and publisher of annual trends report, Mary Meeker, has stated that the digitization of the health care industry is responding to consumer pressure to be more transparent and convenient. Areas impacted are health care records, health information, scheduling appointments with providers, measuring health with wearables and devices, and telemedicine. ZDNet

dis-rup-shun: The health industry has been slow to embrace technology, primarily as care payers have been unwilling to pay the cost of new technologies. A bonus of the Affordable Care Act has been a restructuring by Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) of what procedures get reimbursed by the U.S. Government. The shift to consumers paying a larger portion of healthcare has resulted in demand for technologies to increase convenience, offer more information, and reduce costs. Healthcare is shifting to a consumer, not industry, driven marketplace and the growing demand makes it great business for technology companies.

Cozy relationship between DOJ and Apple, Google

The DOJ has been reported to be considering anti-trust investigations against Apple and Google, while the FTC may be looking into Amazon and Facebook. Senator Elizabeth Warren, however, has determined and announced that the person at the DOJ in charge of a potential inquiry is Assistant Attorney General Makan Delrahim, a man who was a paid lobbyist for both Google and Apple. The Senator is calling for Delrahim to recuse himself if any inquiry occurs. Gizmodo

dis-rup-shun: Senator Warren is doing her part to drain the swamp and expose the increasingly cozy relationships Silicon Valley has formed with Washington through an army of lobbyists. The GAFAM (or FAANG, if you prefer) big-five are increasingly setting pricing and policies on the Internet, and are counting on their political investments to pay off, but an increasing consumer backlash on privacy and data standards will make for a rougher road.

Amazon ends restaurant delivery businesses

Amazon has announced the end of two U.S. food delivery businesses: Amazon Restaurant and Daily Dish. At the same time, the company has increased its stake in delivery business and former competitor, Deliveroo. Deliveroo, based in the UK, is Uber Eats largest competitor. Engadget

dis-rup-shun: We are not accustomed to hearing about Amazon retreating. Amazon is not afraid to lose money in new ventures, and is generally patient. If the company believed that there is no future in food delivery by car, it would likely not have invested in Deliveroo, unless to keep Uber Eats in check as Amazon’s developing drone fleet will challenge Uber’s fleet at some point in the future. Amazon likely wishes to use its stake in Deliveroo to stay connected to the business until it can provide a more profitable form of food delivery than people in cars.

The European Union implements drone regulations

The EU has drafted specific operating requirements for drones, allowing registered drones to fly across borders. The regulations categorize drones in three classes, based on size, purpose and degree of risk. The regulations are likely to be in effect in one year. TechCrunch

dis-rup-shun: The EU is establishing itself as the efficient and effective regulator of technology. The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) data privacy standard, adopted in 2018, changed the way that big data companies operating in Europe store and transmit personal data, including processes and disclosure. Kudos to the EU for taking action and demonstrating leadership in management of personal data, and now drone usage.

Practicing app hygiene makes life simpler

Clean up your phone

The average person launches 9 apps per day and uses 30 over the course of one month. Smartphones, however, typically have several pages of apps, well over one hundred in many cases. The problem with the old, unused apps is that they are not updated, and become security risks, memory hogs, and location trackers. Popular Science

dis-rup-shun: People purchased high tech tools to manage their lives. Now quality of life, like protecting privacy and un-complicating interactions with devices, requires management of devices. What technology will help us manage the devices that help us manage our lives?

 

HVAC dealer as smart home channel

Philadelphia’s Joseph Giannone Plumbing, Heating & Air Conditioning is selling smart home features as a way to increase peace of mind during summer vacation. Focusing on energy savings, leak detection, HVAC performance and lighting as security makes a trip to the beach that much more worry free. Yahoo

dis-rup-shun: Much of the industry is focused on the shootout between Google Nest, Amazon Ring and Alexa, and low-end security provider SimpliSafe. HVAC dealers and installers, however, provide a trusted source for information as well as a reliable installation authority. Brand will be less important when recommended by HVAC dealers, as their level of authority, in most cases, will matter more to homeowners than asking friends or family which technology is best. 

Uber and Lyft are unsustainable

Shelly Palmer explains that Uber and Lyft have no differentiation, and therefore cannot attain enough pricing advantage over one another to sustain profits. Autonomous vehicles, however, built by big car companies, will win as their ability to make and deploy products directly to consumers who will “buy” the cars one mile at a time will be more profitable. Uber and Lyft, the argument goes, cannot purchase cars outright and rent them as efficiently as automakers. 

dis-rup-shun: For the same reasons automakers purchased car rental companies — creating large buying groups that cut out the middle man (the dealer) — makers of autonomous vehicles operated by the manufacturer will enjoy a higher margin and a pricing advantage in a cutthroat market.